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Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes by BMI: Patient Outcomes Research To Advance Learning (PORTAL) Multisite Cohort of Adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2019 Dec; 42(12): 2211-2219

Prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus Current Medical Research and Opinion Volume 32, 2016 - Issue 7

Medscape Physician Compensation Report 2016 April 1, 2016

National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States CDC, 2020

Asian Americans: diabetes prevalence across U.S. and World Health Organization weight classifications Diabetes Care. Sep 2009;32(9)

Diabetes Among Indian Americans Coronary Artery Disease in Asian Indians

Diabetes and Asian Americans, CDC

More than half of Asian Americans with diabetes are undiagnosed National Institutes of Health, 2015

Statistics About Diabetes American Diabetes Association

Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2017 American Diabetes Association

Healthy People 2030 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Increase the proportion of adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease who get ACE inhibitors or ARBs — CKD‑05 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Increase the proportion of people with diabetes who get formal diabetes education — D‑06 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Reduce the rate of foot and leg amputations in adults with diabetes — D‑08 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Key Initiatives, US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health

FY 2020 Grand Awards, US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health

Diversity Programs of the Office of Minority Health Research Coordination (OMHRC), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Office of Minority Health and Health Equity, FDA

National Diabetes Prevention Program, CDC

Native Diabetes Wellness Program, CDC

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Diabetes Screening and Hyperglycemia Among US Women After Gestational Diabetes CDC, October 24, 2019

CDC Releases First National Estimates on Diabetes within Hispanic and Asian Populations in the US, CDC press release, Friday, December 20, 2019 

Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2016 Apr 4

Perceived microaggressions in health care: A measurement study
PLoS One 2019 Feb 5

Association of Simulated Patient Race/Ethnicity With Scheduling of Primary Care Appointments.
JAMA Network Open 2020

Disparities in Time Spent Seeking Medical Care in the United States
JAMA Internal Medicine 2015

Evaluation of the Cascade of Diabetes Care in the United States, 2005-2016
JAMA Internal Medicine 2019

Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Management and Outcomes Among Children With Type 1 Diabetes
2015 Mar

Starting new diabetes drugs less likely for racial minorities, Medicare Advantage beneficiaries
Clinical Endocrinology News June 13, 2020

Diversity in Medical Education
Association of American Medical Colleges 2016

Gaps in College Spending Shortchange Students of Color
Center for American Progress, April 2018

EMPOWER for Health Act of 2019

Bloomberg pledges $100 million to medical schools at 4 HBCUs
CNBC 2020

AMA: Racism is a threat to public health
American Medical Association, 2020

Filing a complaint about a doctor, hospital, or provider Medicare.gov

Diabetes Risk Factors CDC

Sex, Race, and Ethnic Diversity of U.S. Health Occupations (2011-2015) August 2017 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 

Implicit Racial/Ethnic Bias Among Health Care Professionals and Its Influence on Health Care Outcomes: A Systematic Review Am J Public Health. 2015 December

The Effects of Race and Racial Concordance on Patient-Physician Communication: A Systematic Review of the Literature J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018 Feb 5

Unveiling the role of physician implicit bias and communication behaviors in dissatisfaction, mistrust, and nonadherence in Black patients with Type 2 diabetes (2018-2021) Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine

Glycemic Outcomes in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Participating in a Continuous Glucose Monitor–Driven Virtual Diabetes Clinic: Prospective Trial Journal of Medical Internet Research, August 2020

Medicare to Cover Therapeutic CGM, Sets Criteria EndocrineWeb, 2017

Medicaid and CGM: Who's Covered? DiaTribe, November 2019

Eight States Pass Legislation to Place Caps on Insulin Price; Five More Await Ruling DiaTribe, April 2020

New Medicare Program Will Limit Insulin Costs to $35 Per Month DiaTribe, March 2020

States are trying to cap the price of insulin. Pharmaceutical companies are pushing back. NBC News, August 2020

Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin EndocrineWeb

Low-cost medication options Dr. Barbara Onumah of Anne Arundel Medical Center in Annapolis, Maryland 

Financial help for diabetes care NIDDKD/NIH

Las Colonias in the 21st Century: Progress Along the Texas-Mexico Border Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Community Development

Profile of the Unauthorized Population: Cameron County, TX Migration Policy Institute

¡Si Yo Puedo Controlar Mis Diabetes! Wisdom, Power, Control American Diabetes Association® Launches New Diabetes Support Directory to Connect Communities to Diabetes Support Programs American Diabetes Association

Focusing on Rural Livability AARP March 2019

Hungry for supermarkets: Data-journalism tools support AP analysis AP December 2015

Blood Sugar: Racial Pharmacology and Food Justice in Black America Anthony Hatch, 2016

On Racism: A New Standard For Publishing on Racial Health Inequities Journal of Health Affairs, July 2020

Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: A geographic analysis American Journal of Preventative Medicine October 2004

Franchise: The Golden Arches in Black America Marcia Chatelain 2020

Effects of Traditional and Western Environments on Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Pima Indians in Mexico and the U.S. Diabetes Care/ADA 2006

High-Risk Populations: The Pimas of Arizona and Mexico Current Obesity Reports March 2015

New study shows decrease in diabetes prevalence for American Indian and Alaska Native adults Indian Health Service, April 2020

Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in American Indian and Alaska Native adults, 2006–2017 BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care 2020

Chickasaw Nation Diabetes Care Center Traditions and Diabetes Prevention: A Healthy Path for Native Americans American Diabetes Association October 2010

The Importance of Food Sovereignty Kayla Sawyer, National Indian Council on Aging April 2019

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Report: Dollar Stores Are Targeting Struggling Urban Neighborhoods and Small Towns. One Community Is Showing How to Fight Back. Institute for Local Self Reliance December 2018

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Race/Ethnic Difference in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications Current Diabetes Reports 2013

Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 2016

A New Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate Annals of Internal Medicine 2009

Air Pollution and Type 2 Diabetes: Mechanistic Insights American Diabetes Association 2012

Longitudinal Associations Between Ambient Air Pollution With Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Adiposity in Los Angeles Latino Children Diabetes 2017

Should Race Be Replaced? Reconsidering the eGFR Equations NephJC 2019

Hidden in Plain Sight — Reconsidering the Use of Race Correction in Clinical Algorithms New England Journal of Medicine Aug 2020

A yearslong push to remove racist bias from kidney testing gains new ground

2021 ADA Standards of Care

American Diabetes Association. 1. Improving care and promoting health in populations: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care 2020;43(Suppl. 1):S7–S13

Social Determinants of Health and Diabetes: A Scientific Review Diabetes Care

Effect of environmental air pollution on type 2 diabetes mellitus European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences

Unveiling the role of physician implicit bias and communication behaviors in dissatisfaction, mistrust, and nonadherence in Black patients with Type 2 diabetes (2018-2021) Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine

Ethnic and racial diversity among doctors has also been shown to help build cultural awareness https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571328/

Definition of food deserts https://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2011/december/data-feature-mapping-food-deserts-in-the-us/

Fast food restaurants in Black neighborhoods
https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(04)00139-4/abstract

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