Exenatide Affects Circulating Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers Independently of Changes in Body Composition
Introduction: This study's aim was to investigate the effect of exenatide treatment in addition to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes; the effects on body composition and circulating cardiovascular risk biomarkers were studied.
Methods: Sixty-nine metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either exenatide or insulin glargine. They were treated for 1 year. During that time, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Patients' body weight, waist circumference, and cardiovascular biomarkers were also measured.
Results: The treatment with exenatide lasted one year and at the end of the treatment period, the group of patients who received exenatide showed a 5% decrease in body weight, an 11% reduction in total body fat mass, a 15% decrease in truncal fat mass, and a 5% decrease in waist circumference. The latter two are important findings in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In addition, the treatment with exenatide for 1 year resulted in the significant changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, such as a 61% decrease of high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (CRP) and 14% decrease in leptin levels, and 19% increase in adiponectin levels.
This study was chosen because it is the first report of beneficial effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk with long-term use of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide. It also demonstrates a significant decrease of total body fat mass and truncal fat mass and waist circumference while using exenatide.